site logo

Media Reviews

Rejoice When You Die - New Orleans Jazz Funerals

Book and Exhibit Reviews

< Click on Publication Name for Review >

Gene Thornton - THE NEW YORK TIMES


Jeanie Blake - THE TIMES PICAYUNE - New Orleans

Robert Martin - GLOBE & MAIL - Toronto

David Steinberg - ALBUQUERQUE JOURNAL - New Mexico


Cheré Coen - SUNDAY ADVOCATE - Baton Rouge LA


Drew Wheeler - JAZZ CENTRAL STATION - New York City

Cat Eldridge - FOLK TALES - Great Britain

James T. Black - SOUTHERN LIVING MAGAZINE - Birmingham AL

Susan Larson - TIMES PICAYUNE - New Olreans

Geraldine Wyckoff - GAMBIT WEEKLY - New Olreans

Richard Baudoin - TIMES OF ACADIANA - Lafayette LA

John Fulmer - THE SUN HERALD - Biloxi MS

Bernard Chaillot - THE DAILY ADVERTISER - Lafayette LA

up arrow    Return to top of Page    up arrow

Gene Thornton - THE NEW YORK TIMES

The spectators, white and black, line the sidewalks or perch on the above-ground tombs of the New Orleans cemetery as solemn as ravens and ghosts. The black musicians, splendid in uniforms and polished brass, march with a gravity worthy of bishops and kings. Even the street dancers who follow the funeral procession have solemn unsmiling faces. They are carrying open umbrellas though there is no rain, and they seem to be dancing not for the fun of it, but in tribute to the awful power of death, in whose fearful presence the only truly appropriate response is a solemn affirmation of the sweetness of life.....I am truly impressed by Leo Touchet's success in recording this strange and moving ceremony.


This document of Touchet's is a coherent, well-structured record of a unique phenomenon in the black culture of North America. The "Jazz Funeral," is a distinctive form of wake in which the deceased is mourned en route to the graveyard and celebrated during the return therefrom. This is a highly ritualized ceremony, for which the musical program is often preselected by the deceased. The music played prior to the burial is slow, sombre; the procession moves with grave solemnity. Afterwards, the music explodes exuberantly and the "second lines" - the accumulated parade behind the bands - begin a dance whose symbolic purpose is the affirmation that in the midst of death we are in life. Touchet has etched all this in a dramatic way: crisp clean prints in which the figures of the participants are silhouetted against clear, featureless skies. The essay is divided into three sections: the first explores the spectators, as they would be seen by a member of the funeral procession. The second studies the processions from a spectator's-eye viewpoint, and the third records the excitement of the "second line" dance from inside the line, as though the camera were a participant. This is a coherent essay, carefully considered and assembled.

Jeanie Blake - THE TIMES PICAYUNE - New Orleans

A jazz funeral in New Orleans is an experience which transcends all others. More than a congregation of mourners, it is a piritual meeting of souls; an uplifting occurance dealing with the properties of life and death. It is also an intangible feeling as real as a trumpet solo and as important as the message it carries. The New Orleans jazz funeral photographs by Leo Touchet capture this spirit in fine artistic terms, making this exhibit the next best thing to being there.....This photographic display is the finest exhibited in this city in a long time.

Robert Martin - GLOBE & MAIL - Toronto

Leo Touchet is a white man photographing blacks. He takes pictures of funerals, New Orleans jazz funerals.....His photographs of the spectators and participants, even in moments of revelry still show the essential dignity of a proud people engaged in an indigenous cultural activity. They are also now increasingly a matter of historical interest because the jazz funeral is a unique and ever changing phenomenon. As the procession moves through the neighborhood, people swarm from their houses to join in. After the burial, the grand master cries out, 'He was riding high till the Good Lord (sometimes amended to the butcher) cut him down.' The band starts playing up-tempo numbers, and the crowd begins dancing through the streets.....This is not as macabre as it sounds. Death is a cause for celebration. The deceased jazz musician is now going to join the big jam session in the sky.

David Steinberg - ALBUQUERQUE JOURNAL - Albuquerque

This book is a living treasure of photographs that Leo Touchet took between 1968 and 1970 at New Orleans jazz funerals. It was a time when funerals were only for jazz musicians or members of social clubs. Today, anyone in the Crescent City can have a funeral with music i if they pay for it. It was a time when the music was traditional and the type of music was divided chronologically. Today there is no such break; all the music is lively and often popular. The brass band played dirges from the home of the deceased to one of the city's above-ground tombs. the mood changed from solemn to joyful when the family left the gravesite. But only at a certain moment did the public grieving offically end. Ellis Marsalis, Wynton and Branford's jazz educator-father, explains in his introduction: "When a respectful distance from the site has been reached, the lead trumpeter sounds a two-note preparatory riff to alert his fellow musicians. At this point the drummers begin to play what has become known as the 'second line' beat. Family, friends and thousands of anonymous spectators formed the "second line" of celebrants. People pranced, some with home-decorated umbrellas, to the tunes. A typical tune in the segment was "When the Saints Go Marchin' In." Originally a hymn sung in black Protestant churches, it was transformed and played during the recessional in its more familiar upbeat style. Touchet's photographs are a valuable document in and of themselves. But I think they will become more important in another 30 years as we review how Americans celebrated the stages of life in the 20th century.
(Note: David Steinberg, book editor and an arts writer for the Journal, was a wide-eyed spectator at Paul Barbarin's funeral.)

Cheré Coen - SUNDAY ADVOCATE - Baton Rouge LA

Leo Touchet beautifully photographed the slow mournful procession of New Orleans jazz funerals of the late 1960's and early 1970's and the joyous afterward known as the second-line. A native of Abbeville, Louisiana, Touchet captured the funeral culture of music and dancing so unique to New Orleans, in addition to close-up exhibitions of the people who kept the century-old tradition alive. Unique in itself is the period of this wonderfully designed coffee table book. Touchet's collection of duotones encapsulate that last hurrah of traditional jazz funerals, a culture that has since incorporated modern sounds and eliminated customs previous generations. The book is naturally divided into two sections, the solemn funeral processions that precede the burial and the rejoicing of the second-line after the body is laid to rest. In between are dramatic renditions of song lyrics and imagined observations of participants by Vernel Bagneris, the creator and star of the New York production of Jelly Roll!, based on the life of Jelly Roll Morton. The book concludes with a fitting thought that embraces the root of New Orleans mourning customs: “You cry when you're born, so rejoice when you die.”


Some things have changed in the jazz funeral over the years Iem not too happy about. The younger people have brought in more of that raggae "hop around" feeling to some of the music. I like that solid back-beat laid on the traditional march tempo. But thates me. Some things though, Iem glad theyere gone. Like those horse drawn hearses. They were more elegant now, donet get me wrong. But the stench from all those piles of droppings was enough to make you settle for cars. Another thing I can do without is all the fear that surrounded the funeral processions. People used to say that the soul, when first released at the graveyard, would try to invade the living persons present and take over their bodies, in short, retreating from the other worldes uncertainty. So the family would shake from head to toe waddling back home. That would keep them from being as easy target. It was an eerie sight to see. In later years, drums were added to lighten the ordeal for the already burdened loved ones. Friends and lodge members, known as "secondliners", would march alongside the family offering support, protecting them from possible harrassment by those with a "bone to pick" ill-tempered "other women" or rejected, illegitimate offspring. Now, the "wobbling" walk in fear of possession is just part of a farewell dance from the crowd as the family releases the soul to its destiny. More instruments have been added over the years - - playing spirituals and dirges when they first leave the church, then jubliliant, crowd-pleasing party numbers as they toast the dead.


If Brassai was the "eye of Paris," a gentleman named Leo Touchet is the cemetery correspondent of New Orleans. He'll sign copies of his photographic book REJOICE WHEN YOU DIE - The New Orleans Jazz Funerals tonight at Paulies (amidst his "Desert Sand Dunes" exhibit) and tomorrow night at the Shrines of the Black Madonna bookstore. In 113 black-and-white photos, Touchet captures the elaborately decorated caskets, the solemn, slow-stepping marshals, the curious spectators, the brass bands and the feverish dancing of the dying ritual.

Drew Wheeler - JAZZ CENTRAL STATION - New York City

“REJOICE WHEN YOU DIE” was what it said in the “subject” line of an e-mail somebody sent me. Oh great, I thought, another one of these. Well, imagine my surprise when I realized that the potentially vicious message was merely notification that I was being sent a review copy of Rejoice When You Die: The New Orleans Jazz Funerals , an attractive volume of black-and-white photographs by Leo Touchet, with text by Vernel Bagneris and an introduction by Ellis Marsalis Jr. (New Orleans native Bagneris is a playwright whose works include Jelly Roll! and One Mo' Time, and who also acts, most recently in Cy Coleman's Broadway hit The Life. Marsalis is a pianist, composer, educator and New Orleans jazz scholar. Some of his sons are trying to break into the music business.) And, if anyone was wondering, the book's title comes from the verse, “You cry when you're born/So rejoice when you die.”

In Rejoice, Touchet's photojournalistic--and yet otherworldly--images capture the solemnity, the ritual, the mourning and the ebullience that attended the traditional jazz funeral. The sashes, banners, musical instruments, handkerchiefs and umbrellas all bestow a mystical symbolism on the proceedings. Touchet's scenes depict the seemingly ancient roles played by funeral officials, musicians and mourners, in beguiling tableaux peopled also with locals, onlookers and even tourists.

In Marsalis' introduction, he explains these New Orleans burial rites as a function of the social-aid clubs and benevolent societies that became a necessary part of black life after Emancipation. Since the 1880s, Marsalis writes, the grass-roots safety net these societies provided also included funerals with the accompaniment of local brass bands. The book's two parts are “Funeral Procession” and “Second Line.” The opening section details the mournful march to the graveside service; the concluding one describes the exuberant procession after the burial. The “second line beat” was the lively tempo that marked the return from the funeral service. The “second line” was also the assembly of friends and relations that offered support to the family of the deceased. (And to think of the raucous, joyful music that concludes the jazz funeral, I can't help but think of it as a prime example of contradictory American celebrations, like the celebrity roast.)

In jazz funerals, Touchet believes that the umbrella-tradition came about in imitation of whites, who were known for carrying parasols to keep the sun off their skin. This was not for the avoidance of skin cancer. In the intensely color-conscious world of New Orleans in the past, the deeper one's shade, the lower one was ranked in the imposed social order. Whites were said to have been worried that getting a tan might lead to being mistaken for a creole.

The positions that some mourners assume in the photos are somehow reminiscent of ecstatic dancers from North Africa or other locales. “There definitely was a feeling of it,” said Touchet. “There's a certain strut, a certain style. And it didn't matter what the music was--I learned the movement more than anything else. I'm not really musically inclined. I just learned the movement and was able to photograph it that way. I've seen funerals in the Islands and they did this very similar strut. And that's very much African, there.”

Bagneris' text explains that there was a palpable element of fear in the funerals, as legend had it that the soul of the newly-interred might recoil from the hereafter and possess one of the mourners: “So, the family would shake from head to toe waddling back home. That would keep them from being easy targets. It was an eerie sight to see.”

But these photographs also show more mundane accoutrements, such as a bass bedecked in what looks like flowers for the procession for a deceased bassist. Touchet recalls a drummer's funeral where his drums were draped in black cloth for the funeral procession. “They would usually carry the instrument of the person who died,” said Touchet.

To remind readers of what an authentic jazz funeral sounded like, the publishers of Rejoice When You Die make available an accompanying CD of music traditional to these rites. The selections, chosen from a list compiled by Touchet, Bagneris and Marsalis, include gospel classics “Old Rugged Cross,” “What A Friend” and “Amazing Grace,” as well as more secular themes “When The Saints Go Marchin' In” and “Didn't He Ramble?” New Orleans-based ensemble DeJan's Olympia Brass Band performs the classic material in the classic style, under the direction of Milton Batiste.

Cat Eldridge - FOLK TALES - Great Britain

New Orleans is a strange place: a confluence of the very old Catholic French and Spanish cultures colliding and merging with both the decidedly strange Afro-Caribbean culture that came later and the Native Americans who were here before anyone else - all fusing into something completely unique to North America. And the music is likewise unlike anything else you'll ever hear: jazz so primeval that you'll swear that the loa themselves are riding the musicians. And jazz so sweet that you'll believe that angels themselves slumming.

Jazz funerals have a long and complex history in New Orleans. And much of their appeal is in the visual impact of a full-blown funeral procession, Observe that I specifically noted the photographer (Leo Touchet) in the credits as the photographs are what make this book worth every halfpenny of its price. There are more than one hundred black-and-white photographs taken at jazz funerals between 1968 and 1970. In every photo Leo Touchet has captured the sheer joy inherent in the celebration of the life of a musician who lived life to its fullest. And the community who knew and loved that person shows that by partying in a manner fitting that of a jazz musician: loudly with much motion.

The text by Vernel Bagneris more than amply frames the photographs that were taken at various funerals including that of Paul 'T-Boy" Barbarin and social club member Leon "Nooney-Boy" Shelly. Bagneris correctly notes that this is after all a party, a celebration of life, not a sad ending at all. Dance, music, food, and storytelling all fuse into something that's truly a revel. It's a fitting touch that Vernel Bagneris, a playwright, includes the wry observations of the recently departed.

The final fitting touch is the insightful introductory commentary by noted jazz musician Ellis L. Marsalis Jr. who provides the necessary information to fully appreciate both the funerals themselves and the musical tradition that created them. REJOICE WHEN YOU DIE: The New Orleans Jazz Funerals belongs in the collection of anyone interested in jazz and jazz culture at its very best.

James T. Black - SOUTHERN LIVING MAGAZINE - Birmingham AL

A lot of crying and rejoicing has always gone on during that most unique of New Orleans traditions, the jazz funeral. And that powerful combination of grief and glee comes alive in this moving collection of black-and-white photographs and colorful words fo two Louisiana artists.

From 1968 to 1970, photographer Leo Touchet followed many of the musical memorials. "I photographed them," he explains, "simply because they were a part of the life of New Orleans, with all their sadness and dignity, their pride and himility, their stillness and motion."

New Orleans native and Broadway actor Vernel Bagneris provides the text, which uses song lyrics, bystanders comments, and imagined thoughts of the departed themselves to capture the somber mood of the march to the cemetery as well as the exuberance of the �second line� revelers as they accompany the family home.

In his introduction to the book, jazz expert Ellis Marsalis, Jr., laments, "It was in the 1970es that jazz funerals began to change irrevocabley from their traditional form." Those changes lend even more poignancy to the scenes captured by Touchet's cameras more than 20 year ago, and give jazz fans everywhere a reason to rejoice.

Richard Baudoin - TIMES OF ACADIANA - Lafayette LA

Leo Touchet's photos of jazz funerals are straightforward and realistic in nature. His book is a comprehensive documentary of each step of the ritual -- from the slow march to the cemetery to the exuberant stomp after the dead man has been interred.

Interestingly, he may well have recorded the beginning of the end of the jazz funeral as an authentic expression of grief in the African-American community. Taken from 1968 to 1970, Touchetes photos capture the influx of white curiosity seekers to what had been for centuries an organic ceremony for the friends, family and community of the dead musician.

Touchet pulls his lens back from the funeral cortege to show young, white, hip guys and gals, many sporting cameras around their necks, perched atop the tombs as the musician is being buried. The effect is sadness -- for the dead man, but also for an institution that was about to become one more cog in the New Orleans culture machine.

Not surprisingly, Rejoice When You Die features numerous photographs of New Orleans cemeteries. Indeed New Orleans jazz funerals and cemeteries have much in common. Both celebrate death in a peculiarly Creole way. American culture, by contrast, abhors death. As this book makes abundantly clear, the ready acceptance of lifees end may well be the characteristic that most distinguishes New Orleans from the nation to which it ostensibly belongs.

Susan Larson - TIMES PICAYUNE - New Orleans

A jazz funeral procession is one of New Orleans' most distinctive cultural event - and like so many things that characterize the city, it has a dual nature. It is a public procession underlaid with private emotion, a public observance of a private passage, the last parade, if you will. It has deep cultural roots as a community ritual both of loss and of celebration, a recognition of the many lives a single life embraces. It has its elaborate codes of dress and conduct and music, its beginning, its middle, its end, and its room for improvisation. In this elegant, solemnly lovely book, Leo Touchet, Vernel Bagneris and Ellis Marsalis, Jr. illuminate this custom and its many, many meanings.

A jazz funeral procession is one of New Orleans' most distinctive cultural event - Photographs from several jazz funerals between 1968 and 1970 are telescoped into the procession that is the flow, the photographic narrative, of this book. There is the departure from the church, the progress along the way, the solemn leadership and accompaniment, the reaction of the observers, the second-liners and the return, until finally, we see a musician heading home, carrying his horn, broken into two parts.

A jazz funeral procession is one of New Orleans' most distinctive cultural event - Touchet's evocative and powerful black and white photographs, more than 100 of them, capture the emotions of the mourners, the solemn responsibility of the grand marshal, the emotional energy and release of the second line as it breaks into the joyful return from the cemetery after cutting the body loose. Many are shot from unusual angles, though they are perfectly composed. Some are somber portraits, while others are filled with joyful noise and movement.

A jazz funeral procession is one of New Orleans' most distinctive cultural event - Ellis Marsalis' introduction illuminates the customs of the jazz funeral, and shows how these photographs capture it at the end of an era, when traditions were just beginning to change, to give way to modern music and large crowds. In his impressionistic and poetic text, actor and playwright Vernel Bagneris gives us glimpses into the emotions of the mourners, the observers, even, in one instance, the deceased himself, the history of the city, the ritual. “You cry when you're born, so you should rejoice when you die.”

A jazz funeral procession is one of New Orleans' most distinctive cultural event - To accompany the book, there is a remarkable CD of traditional jazz funeral music by the Dejan's Olympia Brass Band, with 13 standards, including “Sweet Bye and Bye,” “Call Him Up,” “Amazing Grace,” “Didn't He Ramble?,” “Just a Closer Walk With Thee,” and “ When the Saints Go Marching In.”

A jazz funeral procession is one of New Orleans' most distinctive cultural event - Listening to the music, looking at the photographs, it is easy to imagine the energy of the crowd, the feeling of the pavement beneath dancing feet, the sounds of the city at one of its most meaningful moments. In this uneasy age of intrusive onlookers, tourists who think a jazz funeral is just another attraction for their pleasure, it is important to be reminded of the solemnity, the gravity of such an occasion. The sadness and the joyfulness of that march toward the final resting place - death and life, as we celebrate them so well here - are writ large on every page of this book.

Geraldine Wyckoff - GAMBIT WEEKLY - New Orleans

In New Orleans, we're accustomed to the tradition and sound of a brass band accompanying a funeral procession. That the deceased's life should be celebrated while his death is mourned is a concept that has been embraced by those who call this city home. However common the spectacle, the importance and emotional impact of witnessing - or being a participant in - the ceremony remains special. Visitors have long been curious about what to them is an unusual phenomenon.

In more than 100 black-and-white photographs taken from 1968 to 1970, Leo Touchet brings the viewer to the final tributes of a number of famous New Orleans jazz musicians, including clarinetist George Lewis, bassist Alcide eSlow Drage Pavageau and drummer Paul Barbarin. In the books first half, we are among the onlookers sitting on stoops or leaning up against the paint-peeled siding of a Creole cottage. We observe pallbearers solemnly carrying a leaf-printed coffin from the church as mourners wipe their tears with white handkerchiefs. A photograph of a grand marshal of Olympia Brass band is seen early in Rejoice When You Die, his great dignity is preserved in the photo - standing with his chin high and his black hat held just so in his white gloved hand. In the second half, we dance beneath the hot sun, umbrellas providing shade as trombone slides brush our cheeks.

Paywright/actor Vernel Bagneris' poetic script, which often speaks as if he too is among the crowd, adds to the emotional atmosphere. Sometimes, Bagneris simply offers the lyrics to songs like “Amazing Grace” to lend a sentimental feeling to the photos. The emotions created by the pictures and the narrative are authentic, reflecting the pain and the joy that are at the heart of jazz funerals. The book is dramatic and sincere in its composition and warm and poetic in its narrative.

Accompanying the book is a CD of traditional brass band funeral music played by the Olympia Brass Band, a welcome addition, especially for those unfamiliar with the genre. The disc begins appropriately with the slow dirge “Sweet Bye and Bye.”

It's interesting to note that even though Bagneris writes about how jazz funerals have changed - in many ways, they have - these photographs speak more to how much they have remained the same. Remove the Converse sneakers from the young men second-lining down the street and replace them with Nikes or Reeboks, and the guys of 1968 are dancing much as they do in 1998. The tradition continues, and the moves, back-jumping and attitude remain. When one of our musicians passes on, they still receive a ceremony respectful of their contributions and artistry.

Christina Masciere - NEW ORLEANS MAGAZINE - New Orleans

Of the many new titles, our vote for Most Photogenic goes to Rejoice When You Die.

Rejoice When You Die gives readers an intimate look at jazz funerals via photographs by Leo Touchet and accompanying text by entertainer and native son Vernel Bagneris. Ellis Marsalis provides a brief historical introduction to this New Orleans institution, which, he laments, is losing its traditional elements as the oldest musicians die and jazz funerals become tourist attractions. Some of the last of the "classic" funerals are shown in Touchet's beautiful black-and-white photos, which were taken between 1968 and 1970 at the funerals of musicians including George Lewis, Alcide Pavageau, Paul Barbarin and Leon Shelly.

Rejoice When You Die doesn't set out to be an authoritative history and cultural analysis of jazz funerals; rather, it's a collection of timeless images and sensory text that attempts to relate the processions on an emotional level. Bagneris' words richly describe the atmosphere of the somber funeral march from church to gravesite and the joyous second-line home. It's an appealing approach to explaining this phenomenon and certainly beats tagging along at jazz funerals as a camera-toting crasher.

John Fulmer - THE SUN HERALD - Biloxi MS

The word "unique" is overused in general. And it probably should be banned, put on moratorium, stricken from the dictionary when it comes to things pertaining to New Orleans. Except when it comes to jazz funerals. What other word applies?

As proof, Leo Touchet, born in Abbeville, Louisiana, the very heart of Cajun country, has assembled - with the help of playwright Vernel Bagneris and jazz patriarch Ellis Marsalis - "Rejoice When You Die."

The coffee-table book is full of black and white photographs that Touchet took between 1968 and 1970. Ites also full of life. Thates the unique part. Only in New Orleans could a funeral turn into a festival.

A traditional jazz funeral starts off somber enough, as Touchet shows in the first part of "Rejoice." The grand marshals, hats in hand, strut before the procession. Gleaming hearses, natty pallbearers and a brass band wearing uniforms dark as a widowes weeds follow.

But on the way back from the burial, when the procession has reached what Marsalis, in his introduction, calls a "respectful distance," a trumpeter signals the drums to play. Thates when the umbrellas start blooming and the crowd forms a second line to dance along with the beat. The second half of Touchetes book documents that colorful street party. Touchet, who took nearly 30 years to put "Rejoice" together, said he had to let the ideas stew.

Marsalis thinks some of the traditions are in danger. Though jazz funerals are still a part of New Orleanse black culture, Marsalis bemoans the switch from longtime standards to popular music and the loss of the quiet march to the grave. The most important change is that nowadays anyone can buy a jazz funeral, a rite that was once reserved for musicians and social club members.

Marsalis is certain that the jazz funerales traditions go back to Africa, and they lay in hibernation through the years of slavery, only to be reborn after the Civil War, when social-aid clubs and benevolent societies, which are now dying institutions themselves, assisted former slaves with all means of support "that would have otherwise been difficult or impossible for them to enterain."

Things like medical bills and insurance - and a funeral that benefited a manes diginity and celebrated his joy. The cost? Marsalis says, "Twenty-five cents a week would ensure a member a proper burial."

Bernard Chaillot - THE DAILY ADVERTISER - Lafayette LA

Abbeville native Leo Touchet's photographic documentation of the New Orleans jazz funerals has long been recognized as among the best work on the subject. That work has now been published by LSU Press in a book entitled REJOICE WHEN YOU DIE - The New Orleans Jazz Funerals, with a text by noted playwright Vernel Bagneris.

The book is a celebration of a cultural activity that itself is a celebration of passing from one life into the next, with umbrella twirling second-line dancers following the casket and a brass band. A compact disc of processional jazz music accompanies the book, which comes with an introduction by New Orleans' jazz legend and teacher Ellis L. Marsallis, Jr.

New Orleans native Bagneris, created and starred in Jelly Roll!, an off-Broadway musical adaptation of the life of jazz pianist and composer Jelly Roll Morton, for which he won an Obie Award and an array of other honors.

Touchet's photographs have been exhibited throughout the country and have appeared magazines including Life, Time, Newsweek, Fortune, Paris Match, as well as the New York Times and the Washington Post. His work is included in various public and private collections, including the New Orleans Museum of Art, the Houston Museum of Fine Arts and the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris.